The Friends have offered lectures on a variety of subjects for a number of years. These lectures benefit from our access to local resources, such as Mary Weahkee showing us how to make turkey feather blankets, and from experts in Pueblo History, Archeology, Pueblo Architecture, and much more.
Lectures that are recorded are posted on YouTube where they can be viewed at your convenience. Simply click on the link provided with the description.
4th Sunday Lecture - Three Letters, One Special Delivery
September 25, 2022, 2 p.m.
Bernalillo Town Hall, Council Chambers, 829 Camino Del Pueblo, Bernalillo. Masking is your choice.
Dr. Julianne Burton-Carvajal, author, historian, and exhiiteions curator, will illustrate how the King of Spain, his Viceroy, and Coronado himself used correspondence to bolster their positions.
Dr. Burton-Carvajal has chosen to focus on three letters from a collection of thirty-five in hopes of catalyzing a discussion about how the selected individiuals reinforced their positions within the operative hierarchy through their correspondence. The talk will not be illustrated with slides, but rather with framed items that will be circulated among the audience .
Over the past four decades the work of scholars Richard and Shirley Flint has given new importance to the New Mexico's Coronado Expedition legacy. One of their signal accomplishments is the volume Documents from the Coronado Expedition. They presented one of our 4th Sunday Lectures , The Coronado Expedition: An Armed Multicultural Commercial Enterprise on June 26 of this year.
Julianne Burton-Carvajal has been bilingual in Spanish since age 16. She was a faculty member at University of Texas–Austin for from 1972–74, and at University of California—Santa Cruz for from 1974–2010. Four years ago, she departed from the Spanish and Mexican capital of Alta California (Monterey) in order to explore the even more venerable Spanish colonial heritage of northern New Mexico.
Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint are the go-to experts when it comes to the Coronado expedition into the southwest in 1540. They have spent a lifetime researching this expedition and its impact on the area in terms of the humans who lived here prior to Coronado’s arrival.
The motivation for the Flint’s most recent book, A Most Splendid Company: The Coronado Expedition in Global Perspective, has been to identify, locate and examine previously unstudied and understudied sixteenth-century documentary manuscript sources dealing with individual persons who participated in the expedition.
During their talk, the Flints will present the cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity of the 2,800 or so people who made up the Mendoza-Coronado expedition.
The Friends' Fourth Sunday Lecture Series for June:
The Coronado Expedition: An Armed Multicultural Commercial Enterprise - June 26, 2022 - 2 p.m. MST
at the Bernalillo Town Hall Council Chambers, 829 Camino Del Pueblo, Bernalillo. The program will be covid-19 compliant.
Bernalillo: Between the River and a Hard Place - May 22
Author Martha Liebert will share the many, and until now, unknown stories of the people and places important to Bernalillo's growth. The contributions of these people created today's Bernalillo and their stories begin in its very early history and continue through the late 20th Century.
The lecture will be held at the Council Chambers of the Bernalillo Town Hall at: 829 Camino Del Pueblo, Bernalillo, NM 87004.
Los Luceros – Revealing the Hidden Gem of New Mexico” 2 p.m. Sunday, April 24, an in-person talk at the Council Chambers of the Bernalillo Town Hall & via Zoom (link is below)
Los Luceros was made into a historic site in 2019 which preserved 148 acres of towering Cottonwood Trees, rolling agricultural fields, incredibly preserved historic buildings, a delightful apple orchard, four miles of traditional acequia ditches, and a bosque full of wildlife… all sitting on the bank of the beautiful Rio Grande.
Carly hopes to demonstrate why this site is so special to so many people by covering the site’s history through its present programs and projects. It is time to excavate this “hidden gem” and reveal its importance and beauty for all to admire!
Carly is the Instructional Coordinator/Lead/Archaeologist at Los Luceros Historic Site where she has worked since January 2020. Carly has a master’s degree in Public Archaeology from the University of New Mexico and a bachelor’s degree in Anthropology from the University of Arizona.
The Fall of Tenochtitlan - What really happened
Join us at 2 p.m. March 20 at either the Council Chambers of the Bernalillo Town Hall or on Zoom for a fascinating look at this piece of history by Sherry Hardage, President of Friends of Coronado Historic Site.
Most of us were taught in school that the Spanish easily overwhelmed the powerful Aztecs in Mexico because they were mistaken for gods who had been prophesied to return from the east. With new insights resulting from modern archaeological research it becomes clear that this long-standing historical narrative was based on fabricated accounts sent to the King of Spain to elicit his support.
We will be able to both do an in-person presentation and broadcast the presentation via Zoom. The presentation will also be recorded.
Sherry Hardage has had an enduring fascination with the cultures of Mexico since attending college at La Universidad de las Americas in Cholula, Puebla.
How Spanish Colonial Presidios reflect the progress of the societies they protected
February 20, 2022. - Javier Eli Astorga Villarroel
Javier Eli Astorga Villarroel will focus his presentation on a review of colonial fortifications - specifically Spanish Colonial presidios - and their historical and cultural uniqueness. His interest is in how the structure and representation (through maps and drawings) of the presidios at different times demonstrated the progress of the society they protected.
To do this he has developed a coding structure to chart this progress that uses special programs to use this data to identify the changes
Javier is a 2021 Friends of Coronado Historic Site research award winner.
Si Eres Genízaro: Race, Indigeneity, and Belonging in Northern New Mexico
with Dr. Gregorio Gonzales, Courtesy of Mr. Gonzales and SAR (School of Advanced Research)
In this presentation, Gregorio Gonzales examines the politics of racialization, representation, and subject formation in northern New Mexico and the U.S. Southwest Borderlands through an anthropological study of Genízaro identity in the Chama and Taos valleys.
Gregorio Gonzales is Genízaro and Comanche from the borderlands of Comanchería and Genízaro country in northern New Mexico. He is currently the 2019-2020 Riley Scholar-in-Residence in Anthropology and Southwest Studies at Colorado College.
From Jinete to Soldado de Cuera: Spanish Light Cavalry in the Medieval & Early Modern Periods, AD 711 to 1848
Mathew Barbour, Regional Mgr. Coronodo and Jemez Sites - Date: April 8, 2021
The Islamic Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula demonstrated the effectiveness of Berber light cavalry.
The Latin Kingdoms of Aragon, Castile and Portugal all copied these troops which they labeled “jinetes.”
The “jinetes” proved pivotal in the Reconquista and were exported to the New World. On the frontier of
Northern New Spain, they would continue to evolve into the iconic “soldado de cuera” that challenged Native
Americans, and later the United States Government, for control of the American Southwest.
This presentation will examine the Spanish light cavalry tradition from the mayyad Invasion of Spain in 711
to the end of the Mexican American War in 1848.
>Link to recorded lecture: From Jinete to Soldado de Cuera:
With Fire and Sword -- The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, AD 1569 – 1795
Presented by Mathew Barbour - Thursday April 22, 2021
While officially established under the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had its roots in
the marriage of Queen Jadwiga of Poland to King Wladyslaw Jagiello of Lithuania in 1386.
The ceremony tied the Crown of Poland to the rulers of Lithuania and converted the Lithuanian Nobility to Christianity. “With fire and sword,” the two nations marched across Eastern Europe crushing Cossack, Teutonic Knight, and Turk to create a vast empire. Explore this multi-ethnic and religiously tolerant nation from its inception to demise. >Link to recorded lecture: With Fire and Sword
Shields of the Pueblo People
In the American Southwest, shields were a way people dealt with conflict. The talk will focus on the history and technology of shields as items of defense and emphasize their use during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680.
Marlon Magdalena, a tribal member of Jemez Pueblo, has been a Ranger at the Jemez Historic Site since 2005. He is currently the Instructional Coordinator. Marlon is also an artist, a flute maker, and a Native American flute performer who has entertained at events throughout the Southwest.
January 5, 2022, part of FCHS Brown Bag lecture series held at noon at the Coronado Historic Site.
The Adopt-A-Native-Elder Program
Linda Myers describes her experience with Navajo elders. October 17
In 1986, through the efforts of Linda Myers and Grace Smith Yelllowhammer, a Navajo, the Adopt-A-Native Elder Program started by gathering donated food, clothing and simple medicines to support Elders living traditionally on the Land. Today, the program delivers 285,000 pounds of supplies annually to the Navajo Reservation to assist more than 800 Elders living by ancestral ways in Arizona and southern Utah
For her dedication serving the Navajo people, Linda has been honored with many awards and accolades and recognized as a CNN Hero. She’s been named one of ten women making a difference at the millennium by Forbes and honored by the Governor of Utah
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY - Date: May 16, 2021
Rich Friedman can kick Indiana Jones’ butt!!
Rich Friedman’s presentation will include examples of digital data used to identify, map and visualize cultural
resources. These include GIS, GPS, LiDAR and Photogrammetry with a virtual reconstruction of “Downtown
Chaco Canyon.” There will be examples of 2D and 3D visualization the 3D “reconstructions” through time of
Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo Alto and Pueblo Del Arroyo from approximately 830 CE to 1250 CE.
Rich Friedman received a BS in Geology from Adams State University but has spent his professional career
working in computer/information technology and archaeology. He has participated in archaeological projects using Geographic
Information Systems, GPS, photogrammetry, LiDAR and remote sensing with the Navajo Nation, National Park Service and the Solstice Project.
>Link to recorded lecture: Emerging Technologies
The Portuguese Empire 1415 – 1668 -- Presented by Matthew J. Barbour
Link: Portuguese Empire
Pioneering Women Archaeologists, Sunday, September 19, 2021 via ZOOM
Women archaeologists/anthropologists played important roles in the study of Native American cultures of the Southwest during the 20th century. Unfortunately, most of their work was ignored due to their gender.
Join Dr. Nancy Parezo, via Zoom, and learn about their lives and works and how they persevered in a field that was once male-dominated.
"Kuaua in Context: The Architecture of John Gaw Meem in New Mexico"
Rachel Preston Prinz, architectural historian and eductor, The ministry of Architecture
April 11, 2021
Rachel has researched Alexander Girard's work for Meem-led contemporary designs at St. Johns College and
the International Museum of Folk Art. She is a researcher of the Santa Fe Style (whose codification effort was
led by Meem),and is currently researching aspects of Meem's spiritual architecture in preparation for her
upcoming book “The Spirit Seeker's Guide to New Mexico Architecture”. In this talk, Rachel will discuss
Meem's work and influence in New Mexico, including the design of the Coronado Historic Site’s Visitor Center.
>Link to recorded lecture: The Architecture of John Gaw Meem in New Mexico
Native American Conquistadors: The Mesoamerican Conquest of the New World
February 11, 2021Presented by Mathew Barbour - February 11,2021
Mesoamerican cultures at the time of the arrival of the Spanish were incredibly advanced. Their military institutions consisted not only of peasant conscripts, but of a professional warrior class. The Spaniards realized this immediately and utilized these forces to great effect in their subjugations of Native Americans throughout the New World. This lecture will explore the role of Mesoamerican Indians in the Spanish colonial enterprise of the 16th and 17th centuries. >Link to recorded lecture: Conquistadors
Seven Bizarre and Extraordinarily Informative Artifacts found behind the Palace of the Governors
February 25, 2021
Presented by Mathew Barbour
Between 2002 and 2004, the Office of Archaeological Studies performed excavations behind Santa Fe’s Palace of the Governors in preparation for the construction of the New Mexico History Museum. This project recovered over 700,000 artifacts, each with a story to tell. Yet, some of these items are -by their very nature- more fascinating than others. Objects, such as an Aztec bowl with the power to cure acne and the slag-lined cupel from Battersea Works in England, have the potential to shed light on lesser known aspects of New Mexico’s often sordid and colorful past. This presentation will examine seven of the most bizarre artifacts found during the archaeological excavations and the history behind their use and disposal at the Palace of the Governors. >Link to recorded lecture: 7_Fascinating_Finds
Early Modern Warfare
The Era of Pike & Shot
January 14, 2021
Military historians often characterize the 16th and 17th centuries as the “Era of Pike and Shot.” The Spanish were the first to introduce to the battlefield a mixed formation of arquebusiers and pikemen during the Italian Wars. The Dutch and Swedes would go on to perfect this formula until wide-scale adoption of the flintlock musket and bayonet by French and German armies in the late 1600s ushered the era to a close. This presentation will look at the military developments and conflicts which characterized the period.
>Link to recorded lecture: : Era of Pike & Shot
Gunpowder Empires: Islam in the 16th and 17th Centuries
January 28, 2021
The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires are often collectively referred to as the “Gunpowder Empires.” These three Islamic states rose to prominence in the 16th and 17th centuries. Their armies were able to conquer large swaths of the Old World, uniting culturally diverse populations under large centralized bureaucracies. In doing so, the “Gunpowder Empires” set the stage for later developments in the Middle East, Balkans, and Indian Subcontinent. This lecture provides a brief overview of these three Islamic states.
>Link to recorded lecture: : Gunpowder Empires
New Mexico in the Twentieth Century
Coronado, Onate, and the Mixton War, 1540 - 1542
December 3, 2020
The Mixton War, which occurred between 1540 and 1542, was a rebellion by Native American peoples against the Spanish. It was a brutal war fought on the fringes of what was then northwest New Spain. Few New Mexicans have ever heard of it. Yet, the figures of the war and the events that occurred leading up to it, during it, and in its immediate aftermath factor very heavily in New Mexico’s history. This presentation explores the war in-depth. >Link to recorded lecture: : Coronado, Onate, and the Mixton War
Urban Archaeology in the Capitol Complex Historic Neighborhood
Thursday, December 17
The Prohibition and Great Depression Eras represent a fascinating point in United States history. Recent archaeological investigations into the Capitol Complex Historic Neighborhood of Santa Fe, New Mexico examined the lives of New Mexico families living at eleven different structures during this period. Cultural materials collected from these investigations were utilized to examine ethnic, socioeconomic, contextual, and temporal differences in consumption and discard patterns among residents of the individual structures and how these differences (or similarities) characterized the neighborhood as a whole. >Link to recorded lecture: : Weird Artifacts in the Capitol Complex
New Mexico Central Railway
December 31, 2020
The New Mexico Central Railway, affectionately known to many as the “Bean Line,” was founded as the Santa Fe, Albuquerque, and Pacific Railroad in 1900 and was in operation until 1926. Success of the railway was tied to agriculture in the Estancia Basin and to markets in Santa Fe, El Paso, and beyond. Recent archaeological investigations in Santa Fe, the northernmost stop for the New Mexico Central Railway, have unearthed much of the infrastructure which once serviced the line. Examining these archaeological phenomena provides evidence as to the speculative nature of the enterprise and the lack of capital investment which ultimately led to its demise.
>Link to recorded lecture:: New Mexico Central Railway
Histories that Defy Expectations
Lesser Known and Unexpected Conquistadors
November 12, 2020
Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro are well known for their conquests of the Aztec and Inca Empires. However, the exploits of these men did not occur in a vacuum. Many other conquistadors came before and after them. They included the Portuguese Afonso de Albuquerque in India and the Native American Ixtlilxochitl II in Central America. This presentation will explore some of these lesser known conquistadors and the impacts of their conquests on the early modern era.
Lecture Series: The U.S. Army in the West Matthew Barbour, Regional Manager: Coronado & Jemez Historic Sites
Part l: That Sink of Vice and Extravagance - August 20, 2020
Established with the conquest of Santa Fe by General Stephen Watts Kearny on August 18, 1846, the Fort Marcy Military
Reservation served as the military and administrative center for the Territory of New Mexico throughout much of the
nineteenth century. Situated at the junction of three major trade networks—El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the
Old Spanish Trail, and the Santa Fe Trail—Fort Marcy transformed a preexisting dilapidated Spanish- and
Mexican-periods presidio into a symbol of a burgeoning imperial power. The military post would go on to play an
important role in numerous conflicts, including various campaigns against the Navajo, the Taos Revolt of 1847,
the American Civil War, and the Spanish American War.
Excavations conducted in recent years throughout downtown Santa Fe have revealed a plethora of archaeological
finds associated with the military reservation, such as foundations associated with the fort’s structures, plumbing/
sewage systems, and pits filled with kitchen and domestic refuse. Portable artifacts collected in association with
these features consist primarily of imported items such as European and Oriental porcelains, rubber combs,
children’s toys, medicinal products, and lots and lots of liquor bottles. In conjunction with archival research, these
materials have begun to paint a detailed picture of life at the military reservation and for Santa Fe as a whole. Fort
Marcy emerges not simply as a base from which war was conducted, but a testament to changes in regional trade
networks brought by United States control of the American Southwest. >Link to recorded lecture: Sink of Vice
Part II: Battle of Glorieta Pass Confederate Mass Grave, 1862
Thursday, September 3 at 3:30 pm
The Battle of Glorieta Pass is referred to by many as the “Gettysburg of theWest.” Following early
victories by a Confederate Army attempting to conquer New Mexico Territory, the battle represented
a turning point in the war. Destruction of the Confederate supply train by Union forces led to the
retreat of the Confederate Army south, never to threaten Union supremacy in the American West again.
In 1987 while building his house, a New Mexico resident unearthed a Confederate mass grave associated
with the battle. This presentation examines the archaeological and forensic findings associated with the
soldiers buried therein. >Link to recorded lecture: Glorieta Pass
Part III: Fort Sumner and the Bosque Redondo Indian Reservation, 1862 - 1869
September 17, 2020
Fort Sumner was established in 1862 to enforce the confinement of rebellious Indian populations at the
newly minted Bosque Redondo Indian Reservation, on the Pecos River. Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson
brought approximately 400 Mescalero Apaches and 7,000 Navajo people to Bosque Redondo. However,
widespread pneumonia and dysentery resulted in the death of roughly a quarter of the population. In
November 1865, the Mescalero fled the reservation, but the Navajos remained until permitted to return
home under the terms of the Treaty of Bosque Redondo in June 1868. Deemed an absolute failure, the post
was abandoned by the US Army in 1869. This is the tale of one of America’s most notorious concentration camps.
>Link to recorded lecture: Fort Sumner
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES/COLUMBUS DAY: First Contact: The Taino & Their Legacy -- October 1
The Taino of the Caribbean were the first Native American people to encounter Spanish explorers.
Historical accounts and the archaeological record indicate a dynamic culture rich with artistic
and religious expression and ideally suited for life among the islands. This lecture will provide an
overview of the Taino, examine their acts of accommodation and resistance to colonization, and
explore how their legacy has-and continues to influence peoples and cultures around the world.
Link to recorded lecture: First Contact
The Era of Late Antiquity -- October 15 at 3:30 pm
Late Antiquity is a term used to characterize Europe, the Mediterranean, and Near East between the 3rd and 8th
centuries AD. This era was a time of profound cultural, political, military, and religious change as old empires
evolved and new ethnic groups emerged to reshape the historical narrative. The lecture will provide a broad
overview of the period examining the decline of the Roman Empire and the rise of Islam.
>Link to recorded lecture: Era of Late Antiquity
An Archaeological Perspective of Hunting in New Mexico
Hunting has always played a pivotal role in Native American subsistence and culture. While much is made of the mega-fauna hunters of the Paleo-Indian Period, later agriculturalists created their own specialized hunting practices. This presentation explores the archaeology and history of hunting in New Mexico from the arrival of hunters and gatherers to the twenty-first century. >
Corn and Cotton: Archaic Life along Mimbres River
In 2011, the Office of Archaeological Studies conducted data recovery on an archaeological site along the Mimbres River, just north of Deming, New Mexico. These efforts resulted in the documentation of 25 features and the collection of 2,091 artifacts and samples. Analytical results suggest that the principal occupation of the site occurred during the Late Archaic/Early Agricultural Period with an emphasis on corn and cotton production. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the archaeological investigations while substantiating and improving our knowledge of early human habitation in the Mimbres Basin. >
Link: Corn and Cotton
History of Jemez Province
Located along the southern flanks of the Jemez Mountains, the Hemish of Jemez Pueblo have always represented a distinct cultural group among the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande. Unlike their Keres neighbors who congregated in large farming communities along major rivers and produced distinct polychrome pottery, the Hemish historically lived in much more dispersed settlements high atop forested mesas and away from permanent water sources. They relied heavily on rainfall to sustain their agriculture and continued the manufacture of black on white pottery long after the practice was abandoned by other Puebloan groups. This presentation explores the unique history of the Hemish from their migration into the region in the 1200s to the present day. >
Link: Jemez Province
Agricultural Ingenuity & Expertise of the Jemez People
The Jemez Mountains with its forested slopes, narrow valleys, and rocky crags appear at first glance unsuitable for cultivation. Yet, some of the earliest evidence of maize (corn) in New Mexico is found there and a Spanish account from 1583 estimates that this rugged terrain may have produced an agricultural yield large enough to support a population of as many as 30,000 people. All Pueblo Peoples were masterful farmers, but the agricultural practices of the Jemez People are nothing short of extraordinary. This presentation will examine agriculture in the Jemez Mountains from its beginnings in the Archaic Period to its collapse in the eighteenth century.
Religion and Rebellion in 17th Century New Mexico
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 did not occur in a vacuum. It represents the nexus in a broader century of religious and political conflict between the Spanish and Native Americans in New Mexico. This presentation will discuss the arrival of the Franciscan missionaries and the impacts Catholicism had on Pueblo culture resulting in both conflict and accommodation. Underlying these interactions is a lesson of tolerance, which remains relevant to this day.
>Link to recorded lecture: Religion and Rebellion in 17th Century
"A Social Diagnosis and Prognosis for COVID-19"
with James A. Trostle
In this online salon, James A. Trostle, t Scott M. Johnson ’97 Distinguished
Professor of Anthropology, Trinity College (Hartford, CT) and SAR
Weatherhead Resident Scholar, will consider the social dimensions of
COVID-19 and their relationship to the pandemic’s epidemiological characteristics. Among the issues he discusses are the pandemic’s likely long-term social effects and changing attitudes toward the risk of infection.
Use this link to open his program: Diagnosis-Prognosis
Use this link to access and download Dr. Trostle's handout. Trostle Handout